Zhuangzi glossary


Duke Huan


齊桓公 Qí Huán Gōng, Duke Huan of Qi (r. 685-643) was the first 霸 bà, "hegemon" or "strongman," able to keep the peace in China during the weakness of the Zhou King. His legendary minister, Guan Zhong, seems to have been the first to recognize the role money plays in addition to or in support of military force, and so made economic policy a cornerstone of their administration. Confucius regarded him as a necessary evil.